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Jerusalem, Tales of the Ancient Holy City (March / April 2003)

Teacher Guide prepared by: Gloria W. Lannom, a frequent contributor to Cobblestone publications.
Excuse the pun, but you will have to DIG for some of the answers to the questions in this Teacher's Guide!

Look at the photograph taken in the late 1800s that illustrates the article titled "How Did They Do That" beginning on page 6. Now answer the following questions by using your eyes: What means of transportation are the people using? (Donkeys, mules, horses, wagons, and their own feet!) What important means of transportation is missing? (cars and trucks) If a traveler to Jerusalem had a problem, where might he go to get help and advice? (Cook's Tourist Office, inside Jaffa Gate) Do you see anyone wearing foreign (non-Arab) dress in the photo? (man wearing a suit and hat facing the camera)

How was the city enclosed? (by very high walls) What are the walls made of? (large blocks of stone) How did people go in and out of the city? (through the city gates) The caption on the photograph tells you how many gates there are and which gate was the most important (seven, Jaffa) Why did it have this name? (because it led towards the important port of Jaffa) What kinds of goods are the vendors offering for sale? (bread, vegetables, and fruit)

The writer of "Where Old Meets New" lists some products and establishments that would not have been found in Old Jerusalem. What are they? (plastic dishes, CDs, VCRs, Internet cafés) Can you think of some others? (televisions, radios, cell phones) People who travel to visit the holy places are called what? (pilgrims) What is their travel called? (pilgrimage)

Look at the article and the mosaic map of the Old City. What is a mosaic? (a flat decoration made by placing small pieces of stone or glass in a pattern) What important monuments of Jerusalem's past do pilgrims visit and where in the city are they located? (Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Christian Quarter; Cathedral of St. James, Armenian Quarter; Western Wall, Jewish Quarter; Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, Muslim Quarter)

"Sifting Through the Pieces," takes the history of Jerusalem back 5,000 years. What is another way of saying when the city began? (about 3,000 B.C.)

Why was Jerusalem's location so important to its development? See "Jerusalem Through Time." (its location where two trade routes crossed brought many people there, making it an important center of commerce) Who were four famous kings of Jerusalem? (David, Solomon, Nebuchadnezzar, and Cyrus) Which Roman emperor played a role in Jerusalem's history? (Emperor Hadrian)

We can learn a lot about Jerusalem from the mosaic map. How else do we find out about the city's history (remember the title of this magazine!) (DIG down through the city layers; read the writings of historians like Josephus Flavius, mentioned on page 20) Why did Herod decide to expand the area of the Temple Mount? (he thought more space was needed to take care of the many Jews who visited during religious festivals) What was the main building material used? (limestone) Where did it come from? (a nearby quarry) How much did the biggest stone in the Western Wall weigh? (between 320 and 350 tons) If we use the figure of 350 tons, how many pounds is this? (One ton = 2,000 pounds) (700,000 pounds!)

What is so special and unique about the Church of the Holy Sepulcher? (Christians believe that it was built over the tomb of Jesus)

What religion considers the place known as Haram al-Sharif a sacred area? (Islam) What important monument is located there? (The Dome of the Rock) What story is associated with the Dome? (Muhammad traveled at night from Mecca to Jerusalem on his winged horse and left from the rock to appear before God in heaven) This is the third most important Islamic pilgrimage place. What are the first and second? (Mecca and Medina)

What did people use for lighting in ancient Jerusalem? (oil lamps)

Now it's time to DIG FOR DATES. Look back through this issue and find the following dates in Jerusalem's history. Give yourself five points for each set you find.
The earliest pottery finds date to between ----- and ------. (4000, 3200 B.C.)
The first water reservoir was built between ---- and ------. (2000, 1500 B.C.)
King David ruled about -------. (1000 B.C.)
Jerusalem fell to Nebuchadnezzar in ------. (586 B.C.)
King Cyrus took the city in ------. (539 B.C. )
The Romans captured the city in ----- (70 A.D.)
Herod the Great ruled from ---- to -----. (37-4 A.D.)
Jesus was executed in about ------. (30-33 A.D.)
The Emperor Hadrian rebuilt the city in -------. (135 A.D.)
The Roman Legion left in ------. (300 A.D.)
The Dome of the Rock was constructed in ---------. (691-692 A.D.)
Control of Jerusalem passed to the Crusaders by --------. (1149 A.D.)

Did you find all 12 dates? Give yourself 60 points.
Finally, after reading about Jerusalem, which important places in the ancient city would you most like to visit?


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